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- This article summarizes the main barriers to entry and growth as experienced by entrepreneurs and business owners in Egypt and Tunisia, and looks at regional differences within each country, differences between formal and informal enterprises, and differences by gender of business owners.
- Top barriers to growth in 2013 were reported to be political instability and public disorder, administrative inefficiency, and restrained access to finance. Even among formal businesses, informal mechanisms often compensate for the absence of effective state institutions and the rule of law.
- Administrative reforms and deeper investments in infrastructure and human capital are needed to build the business-friendly ecosystem needed to generate jobs, grow the economy, and create opportunities for all citizens
This article is based on a longer piece published under the same title in the International Journal on World Peace, Vol. XXVIII No. 1 March 2011.
China is widely regarded as one of the success stories of globalization. Analysts identify China’s success in terms of high and sustained rates of aggregate growth and per capita national income, the absence of a major financial crisis, and a substantial reduction in poverty. They tend to view these results as the consequences of a prudent, yet extensive, program of domestic deregulation and global economic integration, as well as sound macroeconomic management. The outcome of highly accelerated economic development has been frequently called the Chinese Miracle.Read more...
This article was the first place winner in the Democratic Transitions category of CIPE's 2011 Youth Essay Contest.
“India is the world’s largest democracy” is now a phrase which I am sure you are bored of hearing. There is, however, a much less bandied about but equally true phrase: “India is the world’s youngest democracy.”
Today, 54 percent of India’s population is below the age of 25. Over seven out of 10 Indians are below the age of 35. The Population Council of India estimates that there are 315 million people between the ages of 10 and 24. It is estimated that there were 350 million Indians in the politically crucial age group of 15-34 in the year 2000. This number may rise to 485 million by 2030. By 2020, the average Indian will be 29 years old as compared to 37 in China, 45 in Western Europe and 49 in Japan.Read more...
Since the publication of Hernando de Soto's landmark book The Mystery of Capital in 2000, the link between property rights and economic development, especially for the world's poor, has become increasingly well understood.Read more...
Economic freedom contributes to economic growth by fostering competition among actors, leading to increased innovations, efficiency, and ultimately, productivity. Economic freedom also allows investments to be more efficient, leading to growth. The rule of law, as understood as the protection of private property and contractual rights, can protect economic freedom and contribute to growth as well.
Still, the question remains of how to describe economic institutions that make the exercise of economic freedom possible. This article sets out to describe the different component of economic freedom and explain how they relate to both economic growth and the rule of law. Then, it addresses what is necessary for good economic institutions to foster growth on the basis of economic freedom.
The World Economic Forum has surveyed 114 countries each year since 2006 to measure inequality between men and women in terms of economic participation and opportunities, educational attainment, health, and political empowerment. The Global Gender Gap Report index scores can be interpreted as the percentage of the gap that has been closed between women and men. According to their findings, no country has yet to achieve complete gender equality.
The inequality in economic participation (salaries, participation, and highly-skilled employment) and political empowerment (representation in decision-making structures) remains particularly wide. Globally, only 59 percent of the economic gap and 19 percent of the political empowerment gap have closed (100 percent would signify complete equality). Regionally, Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa are more unequal than North America, Europe, and Central Asia. The Middle East and North Africa region shows the largest gender gap.
There has, however, been progress. Of the 114 countries examined by the World Economic Forum, 97 have improved their gender inequality gaps over the last four years.Read more...
- Democratic Governance
- Access to Information
- Combating Corruption
- Business Association Development
- Corporate Governance
- Legal & Regulatory Reform
- Informal Sector & Property Rights
- Corporate Citizenship (CSR)
- South Asia
- Middle East & North Africa
- Latin America & the Caribbean
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CIPE welcomes articles submitted by readers. Most articles run between 3-7 pages (1000-3000 words), but all submissions relevant to CIPE's mission of building accountable, democratic institutions through market-oriented reform will be considered based on merit. Economic Reform Feature Service articles are primarily geared toward an international, non-academic community of businesspeople, economic reformers, and policy-makers. Specific policy recommendations and articles based on direct experience are encouraged. In addition to articles, we are willing to adapt suitable lectures, speeches, research notes, and academic papers.
Articles should be sent to: firstname.lastname@example.org.