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- Revitalizing Serbia’s economy requires encouraging more women to engage in the private sector at the small and medium enterprise level
- Women-to-women mentorship is crucial for supporting and nurturing the growth of women entrepreneurs because it helps build the mentees’ confidence to expand their businesses
- Local women’s business associations, which understand the local challenges that women entrepreneurs face, are great contributors to the entrepreneurship ecosystem for women business owners
Afghanistan’s current development agenda is part of a reconstruction process that is intertwined with the elements of state-building – physical reconstruction, national security, political stability, and human rights issues. A major weakness of the current state-building/reconstruction process is its lack of emphasis on Afghan ownership. So far, external influence and engagement have been dominant, both in policy design and policy implementation. To this point, policy has been made behind closed doors, and there is no transparency in communicating subsequent policies to the Afghan public.Read more...
Economic theory has developed two basic views of corruption, one that considers corruption to be exogenous and the other endogenous to the political process. Applying either theoretical view, three basic types of corruption can be identified: corruption for the acceleration of processes, administrative corruption, and “state capture.” While in most cases, corruption can be attributed to rent appropriation, self-interested individuals seeking to maximize their own personal welfare as well as complicated, ambiguous, and unenforceable laws are also to blame.Read more...
As the competition for foreign investment is heating up, the functionality of legal systems increasingly plays a central role in determining countries’ ability to attract and retain foreign capital. A functional legal system is not only key in building economic foundations, it is also crucial in safeguarding democratic values. However, in many developing countries legal systems are marred by inconsistencies, and newly written laws frequently fail to properly address the issues they should. This gap between policy design and policy implementation is largely due to weakness in the rule of law – a governing structure dependent on the consistent and systematic applications of legal rules. Although “rule of law” is frequently cited in the development field today, few understand it well at the level of implementation. This article sketches the essential framework of a functioning democratic society based on rule of law and highlights successful private sector-led approaches to building such societies.
Public participation in Egypt has historically been attached to the issue of national liberation, an issue of highest priority until the evacuation of British forces in the 1950s. But the perennially low rates of participation since that time must be explained by a number of socioeconomic and political factors, including cultural and historical traditions, economic barriers, the limited reach of international civil society groups, and the lack of modern examples of popular, if not democratic, participation in Egyptian public life. Encouraging citizens to participate in decision-making is a multidimensional issue that is complicated by the interaction between these various elements. Some progress is already occurring, thanks to globalization and increasing efforts among Egypt’s leadership to open the political process. Changing Egypt into a participatory society, however, will require further fundamental adjustments to the legislative framework, new approaches to education and the media, an improved economic situation, and the establishment of transparency and accountability in Egypt’s institutions to win the trust of the Egyptian people.Read more...
Accepting Responsibility: Moving Beyond Political and Economic Dependence in Post Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina
In the decade that has passed since the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina has gone through the painful process of trying to rebuild a country that was destroyed physically, socially, economically, and politically. Reconstruction of the infrastructure, which drew billions of dollars in aid from the international community, is almost complete, but the economy remains weak and the political system is unstable. Privatization efforts, seen as key to economic recovery, were hampered by a lack of healthy money, and most large companies have yet to be privatized. With a government structure that is dependent on the international community’s approval, and an economy that seemed to flourish only because of donor assistance and the gray economy, a new acceptance of responsibility by local governments and business communities is necessary for a true recovery as Bosnia and Herzegovina looks towards European integration. The private sector can lead this initiative by joining together to advocate for economic reforms that will encourage entrepreneurship, local investment, and foreign direct investment.Read more...
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