Feature Service Articles
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Article at a glance:
- Ronald Coase pioneered the work on transaction cost, which was transformative to economics at large.
- The International Society for New Institutional Economics (ISNIE) continues Coase’s work and celebrates his legacy.
- Oliver Williamson commemorates Coase, who was known for generously sharing credit for his work.
CIPE: Women represent 70 percent of the world’s poor even though they perform over 60 percent of the world’s work. What are some of the key barriers women face in political, economic, and civic spheres that prevent them from equal participation?
Manal Omar (MO): The biggest barrier is access by women to the decision-making table. This does not just mean women’s participation in national government or representation in parliament. Such high-level inclusion is an important step but does not necessarily translate into empowering women on the ground in other spheres beyond the national political arena. Women need to be part of farmers’ collectives, business associations, labor unions, city councils, etc.
Often women are performing tasks in an informal capacity and their real contributions are not captured. Many societies use religious and cultural arguments to force women into the invisible sphere. However, over time, societies are beginning to realize they will not be able to progress without the full participation of women.Read more...
2000-2005: A Slow Start With Promising Trends
In the early part of the last decade, reformers had hoped that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Anti-Bribery Convention would be uniformly enforced and that corporations headquartered outside the United States would begin to implement compliance and governance programs similar to those within U.S. firms. Those of us waging the battle against corruption also anticipated that the enactment of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) would keep the topic of corruption on the agenda in most international economic and trade forums, and particularly in the G-8 and G-20 meetings. There was also some expectation that the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) would more aggressively enforce the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). None of those outcomes would be realized until later in the decade.Read more...
Overcoming Legal Barriers to Women's Economic Participation
The World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report measures the magnitude and scope of gender-based disparities among countries in four key categories: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment. In 2010, Pakistan ranked 132 out of the 134 countries evaluated, and scored 133rd – lower than Saudi Arabia and ahead only of Yemen – in terms of economic participation and opportunities for women.Read more...
After gaining independence in 1991, Moldova made a strategic choice to implement democratic, economic, social, and political reforms in order to achieve a European future. Even the country’s former communist government, in power from 2001 until 2009, adopted pro-European rhetoric; however, they paired it with steps taken in the opposite direction. In July 2009, Moldova made the transition to democracy official when a majority voted in favor of pro-European parties, bringing an end to Europe’s last Communist government.
The Moldovan path to Europe proved to be hard, maybe harder than anyone expected. As U.S. Vice President Joe Biden stressed in his recent statement to the Moldovan people in Opera House Square in Chisinau: “[P]olitical change is hard. Economic reforms can be even harder, especially when unemployment is high and prices are rising.”1 However, with the new determination to pursue political and economic reforms, Moldova can achieve these goals.Read more...
Corporate Governance, Scale, and Financial Inclusion
After having their first child together, Hamid and Khadeja had to move away from their coastal village to find work. Settling in the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka, Hamid eventually found work as a backup driver for a motorized rickshaw and Khadeja did occasional sewing work from home. Although they earned about $70 a month, money never flowed steadily. The couple had to find ways to bridge the good weeks and the bad.
Portfolios of the Poor: How the World’s Poor Live on $2 a Day, released in April 2009, offers a detailed portrait of households like Hamid and Khadeja’s. Working in South Africa, India, and Bangladesh, teams of trained researchers interviewed over 250 households at 15-day intervals for about a year each. They attempted to record every financial transaction that each household was willing to disclose – not many at first, but after enough visits the authors found they could gain enough trust to obtain a more complete account of the household cash flow.Read more...
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- Corporate Governance
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- Informal Sector & Property Rights
- Legal & Regulatory Reform
- Middle East & North Africa
- Latin America & the Caribbean
- South Asia
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CIPE welcomes articles submitted by readers. Most articles run between 3-7 pages (1000-3000 words), but all submissions relevant to CIPE's mission of building accountable, democratic institutions through market-oriented reform will be considered based on merit. Economic Reform Feature Service articles are primarily geared toward an international, non-academic community of businesspeople, economic reformers, and policy-makers. Specific policy recommendations and articles based on direct experience are encouraged. In addition to articles, we are willing to adapt suitable lectures, speeches, research notes, and academic papers.
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