Author Archives: Teodora Mihaylova

Case Studies: Advancing Anti-Corruption Efforts in Armenia and Thailand

Yerevan-sunset

Corruption is a systemic problem that plagues many transitional countries across the world, rooted in weak rule of law and lack of private property rights. Not only does corruption erode trust in public institutions, such practices also hinder economic growth and weaken democratic governance.

The corruption challenge can be addressed by building responsive institutions that offer basic assurances of private property rights and ensure law and order. CIPE programs address the root causes of corruption through a multi-pronged approach. CIPE programs mobilize the private sector to raise anti-corruption standards and advocate for reforms; streamline regulations and reduce implementation gaps to limit opportunities for corruption; improve corporate governance to strengthen firm-level integrity; facilitate collective action to level the playing field and coordinate company efforts; and equip small and medium-sized enterprises to resist bribery and meet the requirements of global value chains.

Two recent case studies, described below, show these CIPE approaches in action.

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Shaping the Post-2015 Development Agenda

In 2000, the United Nations laid out an ambitious global development agenda known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which sought to resolve some of the most pressing international challenges of our time: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, improving maternal health, reducing child morality and promoting environmental sustainability.

While the world has made progress on many of these objectives over the past 15 years, the deadline for developing the new set of global development goals is quickly approaching. The current goals will expire on December 31, 2015 and a new set of principles will replace them. The question of what these principles will look like is explored in detail in the latest Economic Reform Feature Service article Shaping the New Development Agenda.

Author James Michel argues that the post-2015 agenda will need to address an increasing number of complex issues and reconcile the goals of a diverse group of actors in the development landscape. While the concrete set of goals have yet to be outlined, what is becoming clear is that there has been a shift in thinking related to international development. Michel’s article explores the emerging consensus that the post-2015 goals will be based on advancing “human security, well-being, and dignity” and will incorporate the Busan principles of “developing country ownership, a focus on results, inclusive partnerships, and mutual accountability and transparency.”

Furthermore, the traditional relationship between donor countries and recipient states, characterized by North-South dependency, will be transformed to an active partnership with an emphasis on local ownership and South-South exchange of knowledge, expertise, and trade. The agenda will pay greater attention to “exclusion and inequality, urbanization, demographic challenges and the positive contribution of migrants” among others. The paramount challenge will be to incorporate these diverse concerns in a coherent policy agenda focused on sustained, inclusive growth.

To read more on the topic of the post-2015 development agenda, read the article here.

Teodora Mihaylova is a Research Coordinator at CIPE.

Case Studies on Democratic Reform in Yemen and Paraguay

paraguay debate

Democracy is a process of governance most often based on compromise, grounded in broad-based inclusiveness of differing viewpoints and the representation of diverse constituency interests. While free and fair elections are certainly one of the most recognizable hallmarks of the democratic process, a vibrant dialogue between political candidates preceding an election makes a vitally important contribution to the quality of governance.

Candidate debates serve multiple purposes. First, debates inform the electorate of the issues being considered. Second, televised debates offer an opportunity for voters to form an opinion and differentiate between candidates based on the substance of their policy positions. Third, debates promote transparency and improve the quality of democratic governance as candidates are able to directly express their views to the electorate, engage with their colleagues, and elevate certain issues over others in the national consciousness. Similarly, input from the private sector and civil society in the formulation of economic and social policy is another characteristic of a vibrant democracy as broad-based participation in the policymaking process ensures that proposed legislation represents the interests of all constituents.

CIPE possesses over thirty years of experience in strengthening democracy worldwide and promoting market oriented reforms in various country contexts. In the forthcoming publication Strategies for Policy Reform, two case studies from Paraguay and Yemen represent distinct approaches to ensuring that democracy delivers economic and political freedoms to citizens. 

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Local Level Governance in the Philippines and Nigeria

Calapan_City_Hall,_Calapan_City,_Oriental_Mindoro,_Philippines

Government officials in towns, cities, states, and regions across the globe are often the first point of contact for citizens, civil society groups, and businesses seeking assistance in addressing a myriad of local challenges. Regional authorities are responsible for tax collection and are accountable to citizens for the stewardship of public finances. Local public officials are most familiar with the economic, social, and political challenges of their jurisdictions and are most adept at addressing these concerns through the delivery of public services and the passage of appropriate legislation. Often, solutions to problems can be found more quickly by engaging the appropriate local level authorities rather than waiting for the adoption of national level legislation. For these reasons, reforming local level governance is often the most effective way to strengthen democratic and economic conditions in a given country.

Local ownership of projects and a focus on local level and grassroots initiatives have been key components of CIPE’s work.

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For Alternatives to the Authoritarian Model, Look to South Africa

Despite its lingering problems, South Africa's transition from apartheid to democracy provides many valuable lessons.

Despite its lingering problems, South Africa’s transition from apartheid to democracy provides many valuable lessons.

This week’s U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit focuses on the topic of “Investing in the Next Generation.” The summit aims to explore issues of economic inclusiveness, democratic development and “creating an enabling environment for the next generation.”

This discussion is especially pertinent in the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, when many in developing countries have begun to lose faith in the wisdom of democratic governance and market-based economic reforms. The rise of Chinese and Russian authoritarianism coupled with robust economic growth in those countries provides a seemingly plausible alternative for lifting millions out of poverty while still allowing autocrats to retain a tight grasp on power.

The Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE), a South African think tank and CIPE partner, examined the post-apartheid experience of South Africa’s transition to market economy and a vibrant democracy in a recently released report entitled “South Africa and the Pursuit of Inclusive Growth.”

As part of a larger initiative known as the “Democracy Consensus”,  CDE’s research shows that democracy is a viable path not only for fostering inclusive economic growth in the short- to medium-term, but also laying the foundations for sound institutions that lead to long-term stability and prosperity.

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Advancing Economic Development through Public-Private Dialogue: Moldova Case Study

Chisinau_City_Gate

When the public and private sectors work together to implement necessary economic reforms, entrepreneurs, businesses and citizens benefit from a more prosperous and vibrant democracy. Businesses possess the know-how and detailed knowledge of economic conditions, obstacles, and opportunities for growth, while governments have the means to pass business-friendly legislation. Public-private dialogue helps these two groups work together to arrive at effective policy solution.

Moldova’s National Business Agenda Network (NBA), comprised of more than 30 business associations and chambers of commerce from across the country, positioned itself as a key stakeholder in policymaking. With CIPE’s support, the Institute for Development and Social Initiatives (IDSI) institutionalized a culture of public-private dialogue where it did not exist before and encouraged greater transparency and inclusiveness in setting reform priorities in the areas of tax and customs law.

Find out how the Moldovan business community successfully built an advocacy coalition to work with the government on reform priorities in the recently-released case study “Public-Private Dialogue in Moldova”, part of a forthcoming case collection Strategies for Policy Reform.

Teodora Mihaylova is a Research Assistant at CIPE.

Enterprise Cities: The Way of the Future?

Dubai_skyline_2010

“Enterprise Cities” aim to emulate the success of places like Dubai.

With rates of urbanization increasing, the idea of “Enterprise Cities” is gaining ground as countries to rethink their approach to economic policy and the best strategies to promote broad-based job creation and growth.

Driven by industrialization and the search for better jobs, millions of people are moving from the countryside into cities. This is proving challenges for governments as it creates increased demand for public services and expensive infrastructure projects to meet the needs of citizens.  Globalization is also increasing competition among countries to attract multinational companies and foreign direct investment.

Widespread reluctance to implement comprehensive reforms, as well as burdensome legal and regulatory regimes, are impediments to economic growth and entrepreneurship, leaving developing countries in a difficult situation.

Special zones with autonomous regulatory systems that bolster competition and foster the growth of competitive markets are one way to cut through the gridlock and bring prosperity to the burgeoning cities of the developing world.

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