Fayyaz Bhidal is a CIPE-Atlas Corps Think Tank LINKS Fellow at the Atlantic Council.
As the world celebrates yet another international day dedicated to acknowledge and appreciate women’s social, economic, cultural and political contributions, women in Pakistan struggle for equal standing in deeply entrenched patriarchal society.
According to a recent article published in 24/7 Wall Street, Pakistan is only second to Yemen among the list of ten worst countries for women to be born in. Let’s look at the statistics in Pakistan: there’s 21 percent gender based income gap; only a quarter of the national labor force are represented by women; and women receive 43 percent less educational opportunities compared to men. In terms of gender equity, Pakistan falls far behind even the war-torn countries of Syria and Sudan. Given that women form about half the total population, their access to health and education services and chances for social and economic growth seem minimal.
In terms of women’s political participation, Pakistan has registered some impressive progress as women constitute about twenty percent of the legislature in provincial and national houses. However, this fair share in power has not translated into better living and working opportunities for the women who are represented by their likes in the parliament. These female parliamentarians usually belong to the elite class of the country, thus their focus is more on maintaining the status quo rather than taking up issues for legislation against women’s sexual harassment or better access to education or healthcare. The little legislation that prevails in this regard is attributed to the efforts of civil society organizations.
Celebrating Global Entrepreneurship Week in Pakistan.
Fayyaz Bhidal is a CIPE-Atlas Corps Think Tank LINKS Fellow at the Atlantic Council.
According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11, out of labor force of 55 million people, over three million are unemployed or underemployed, and the official unemployment rate in urban areas is double that of rural areas.
Marred by an acute energy crisis, militancy, political instability and host of other issues, Pakistan’s annual GDP growth rate is stuck at little above three percent, while the population is increasing at a rate of over two percent per year. This means that every year, roughly two million people enter the labor force. If the current situation is unchanged, the unemployment rate in the country will rise precipitously in the years to come.
According to the Planning Commission of Pakistan, providing jobs to the unemployed — both existing and those entering the labor market every year — requires an annual GDP growth rate of nine percent. Given the fact that both industrial and agricultural sectors are observing negative growth in real terms, and largely uneducated youth cannot be absorbed into the relatively well performing services sector, there seems no way the government will be able to curb this ever-increasing unemployed population.
One of the ways out of this otherwise gloomy national economic picture is to promote youth entrepreneurship. For a society like Pakistan, youth entrepreneurship is a new concept, and will require some serious efforts for promotion to an extent where it will start contributing to annual GDP growth and for extending decent employment opportunities to the youth.
By Hyeji Kim
Any corporate compliance program needs a strong relationship between the board of directors and the compliance and ethics officer in order to be effective. In 2010, the Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics (SCCE) and the Health Care Compliance Association (HCCA) conducted a study which showed that the relationship between the Chief Ethics and Compliance Officers (CECOs) and boards of directors was much weaker than it should be. In 2013, SCCE conducted the study again to see if there were any changes.
The recently published 2013 study, based on over 600 responses from compliance and ethic professionals in the SCCE and HCCA database, seems to be on a much brighter note with generally positive findings.
Naledi Modisaatsone is a CIPE-Atlas Corps Think Tank LINKS Fellow at the Urban Institute.
The demographic dividend is the accelerated economic growth that may result from a rapid decline in a country’s fertility and the subsequent change in the population age structure.
According to the latest UN population projections, Africa will have two billion people by 2040, with the share of 12-to-24-year-olds growing from 18 percent to 28 percent. The increment in size of this age cohort in Africa will be parallel to a decline in the same age group in every other region of the world. This anticipated rapid growth of the labor force possesses serious development challenges, as well as opportunities. The rising question is: how should Africa best prepare in order to benefit from the demographic change in the coming generation?
By Jin Xiaoye, CIPE Global Intern
With the Winter Olympics now underway in Sochi, Russia, it is not only the events themselves that are attracting attention: the high cost of the Games and reports of poorly-constructed facilities have garnered headlines alongside the star athletes and their performances. As in other recent cases of major international events held in emerging market countries, the Games are being seen as both a test of the host country’s ability to pull of such an event, and of whether the promised economic impact will materialize.
The Summer and Winter Olympic Games, as well as the Paralympics, are held every four years in a designated host country. These are competitive events for elite world athletes and great cultural exchanges for participating countries. But sporting concerns have increasingly taken a backseat to discussions of the financial and economic impact of the games.
More and more emerging-market countries have been given the opportunity to host major international events in recent years. The 2010 World Cup, hosted by South Africa, proved to be a huge success in many respects – creating a boom in tourism and raising confidence in the country’s economy. But like other recent events, such as the 2008 Summer Olympics in China and the upcoming World Cup in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, it also generated controversy around the cost and long-term economic impact.
The business community has embraced cooperation with the organizers of the Olympics, a trend which has especially benefitted multinationals and other large businesses. However, corruption and other negative consequences like embezzlement and human rights violations have come to one of the biggest global sports festival too.
Louis Delcart is the Director of Internationalisation and Innovation at VOKA – Flanders’ Chamber of Commerce Halle-Vilvoorde. He is serving as a mentor to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Centre through CIPE’s Knowhow Mentorship program.
Tunisia is, for us Europeans, a touristic paradise, like Spain or Turkey. But it is also a country with an ancient civilization, dating from centuries before: Queen Dido, Hannibal and the Carthaginians, Pompey the Great and his African conquests, the Beys of Tunis and the corsairs attacking European ships from the pirates near Mahdia. They all are part of 3,000 years of rich history.
It was also in this country that the Arab Spring started in 2011. Within three weeks time, the popular uprising chased out the country’s autocratic leader, Ben Ali. A democratic process was started, with the election of Ennahda, a moderate Islamic party, to power. After three years, the love of the people for its new government is over. But Tunisia’s subsequent political development has been different from its neighboring countries: a technocratic interim government was recently formed and a new constitution is being edited, discussed, and voted on article by article in the parliament. Tunisia is – at least to this point — not missing its turn towards democracy.
It is in this context that I was invited by CIPE to mentor a chamber of commerce in this country. I was given a choice between two regional chambers, and I selected the one with the most elaborate strategic plan, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Centre (CCI-Centre) in Sousse, which made me curious.
By Maggie Bohlander and Ricky Chen
With every holiday season, we have witnessed that annual ritual of families and friends gathering to watch those heartwarming yuletide films, Love Actually, It’s a Wonderful Life, and A Charlie Brown Christmas. One that may not get so much play time is John Landis’s Trading Places, a dark 1983 social comedy starring Eddie Murphy, Jamie Lee Curtis, and Dan Aykroyd.
In the film, two ageing millionaires, the Duke brothers, engage in a bet over whether — given the right environment and upbringing — any disadvantaged person can blend in as a member of America’s upper echelon. Or whether, on the other hand, given the wrong circumstances, a member of the 1 percent can fall off the social ladder as easily as the disadvantaged can climb it. This is the timeless debate: nature vs. nurture.
The same debate plays out in entrepreneurship. Are entrepreneurs born or are they made? Why do some countries boast many startups and small- and medium-sized businesses while others do not?