Turkmenistan’s capital Ashgabat, seen at night. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)
The private sector faces challenges to growing and developing within Turkmenistan’s primarily state-controlled economy. For small and medium-sized entrepreneurs in the regions, the challenges vary but include overregulation and excessive bureaucratic procedures. A survey of SMEs in the country’s five regions found similar obstacles for business growth as well as some differences.
In the northern province of Dashoguz, SME representatives identified the following as the most pressing barriers to growing their businesses:
- Limited access to credit
- Lack of information on business-related legislation
- Not enough information available about the domestic market situation
In Ahal region, where the capital Ashgabat is located, entrepreneurs report that the situation for business has stabilized in the past year. SME owners expressed optimism about the state of their business activities, asserting that if one is persistent and driven, it is possible to operate a successful business. SMEs in the Balkan region, which borders the Caspian Sea, also note some improvements in the ease of doing business, citing market stabilization as the main factor.
According to Freedom House’s Freedom of the Press 2013 report, Kyrgyzstan’s media environment remains ‘not free’ with little improvement in press freedom over the last ten years.
Though the situation is not as bleak as in the rest of Central Asia, when reporting on politically-sensitive issues in Kyrgyzstan, media outlets practice self-censorship to avoid threats or harassment. When reporting on economic topics, however, journalists often simply lack the skills or background to provide comprehensive analysis. As a result, the Kyrgyz public lacks information about important economic trends, events, and issues. As access to information is a crucial component of free societies, the poor information flow in Kyrgyzstan hinders the country’s democratic and market-economic transition.
Providing the poor with access to credit at reasonable interest rates does seem to be a panacea for alleviating poverty. With credit, a person can produce a good or provide a service that will generate an income with which basic needs can be met. Credit also allows a person to utilize their talents, skills, and initiative to fill a niche in the market, spurring economic and entrepreneurial growth in a community and country. In rural Guatemala, for example, a woman bakes bread every morning in a stove bought with a small loan and sells the loaves to a shop in her village. In Nepal, a man buys five water buffalo with a small loan and sells the milk each morning to his neighbors.
Though it is difficult to estimate the affect of such micro-entrepreneurial activities on a country’s overall GDP, the impact on individuals and society is immeasurable. Small loans stimulate private entrepreneurship and expand economic freedoms crucial to building a market economy and democracy. They empower the poor with the freedom to make choices regarding how they use and save their income. If spent on food, health care, shelter and education, individuals can more easily escape the poverty trap. Raising the income level and standard of living among the world’s poor also builds a middle-income class that is more able to participate in civic activities and demand greater accountability from the government.
Budget transparency strengthens a government’s accountability to its constituents. The public has a right to be informed about how taxes are allocated and spent, as such decisions directly impact a country’s political and economic development.
The International Budget Partnership (IBP) ranks countries based on the level of budget transparency and public participation in the budget-making process. IBP’s recently-released 2012 Open Budget Survey found that only 23 of the 100 countries surveyed provide sufficient budgetary information to the public. To improve transparency, IBP stresses the need for mechanisms that allow civil society to participate in and monitor the budget-making process to hold government officials accountable for use of public funds.
According to IBP’s report, Kyrgyzstan scored in the bottom percentile (20 out of 100), receiving the same score as Zimbabwe. In fall 2012, the Kyrgyz Parliament held hearings and debates on the 2013 budget. Pressing issues for the population, such as poor infrastructure and waste management, were among the topics discussed. CIPE’s partner, the Development Policy Institute (DPI), noted that parliamentary hearings were not widely covered in the media and the public remained largely unaware of the decisions being made. To address this, DPI used CIPE/NED support to organize two press conferences with 24 Kyrgyz journalists on the 2013 budget.
Kyrgyzstan’s capital city of Bishkek hosted more than 100 Eurasian journalists and economic experts for a two-day conference on the emerging field of economic journalism. The CIPE/NED-funded event entitled “Economic Journalism as a Factor and Indicator for Market Economic Development” took place on October 11-12 and was the first of its kind, with participants from all five Central Asian countries. Organized and moderated by the Bishkek-based Development Policy Institute, the event fostered greater cross-border and cross-sectoral dialogue on economic and business-related issues.
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Participants in last year’s economic journalism training program.
From Astana to Tashkent, approximately 80 Central Asian media and business representatives will gather in Bishkek on October 11th for a two-day conference aimed at strengthening reporting on economic and business-related issues. Presenters will include experts from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Russia, and Ukraine, who will offer lessons learned and best practices to develop the field of economic journalism and facilitate effective cooperation and information exchange between media and business.
The topics are timely and relevant, given Freedom House’s 2012 Freedom in the World Report which ranks four of the five Central Asian states among the least free countries in the world, with only Kyrgyzstan improving its ranking from last year. Even after more than twenty years of post-Soviet independence, the region still faces major challenges to its transition to a market-based democracy.